Tuesday, 1 September 2015

World Today - 31st August 2015

  1. South Africa’s One Day International team captain AB de Villiers became the fastest batsman to reach 8000 One Day International (ODI) runs. He achieved the fete during the third ODI against New Zealand in Durban which South Africa won by 62 runs. De Villiers, who went past 8000 runs in just his 182 innings, broke the previous record held by former Indian captain Sourav Ganguly
  2. King of Sprint-Jamaica’s Usain Bolt completed a perfect sprint double over his rival Justin Gatlin (America) by winning the 200 meters at the 2015 Beijing World Athletics Championships. It is his second gold medal of the Championship. The 29 years old Jamaican clocked 19.55 seconds to beat a strong field. Gatlin managed 19.74 seconds to finish second, ahead of South African Anaso Jobodwana, who created a national record with 19.87 seconds.
  3. Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO), the largest producer and marketer of fertilizers in the country, strengthening the Make in India campaign started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi by joining hands with the global player in agrochemicals business, Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan, to form a joint venture company IFFCO-MC Crop Science Private Limited. IFFCO will hold 51 per cent stake in the company and rest will be with Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan. The company will manufacture the high quality agrochemicals in India. The company was formally launched at IFFCO’s Head Office in New Delhi
  4. NITI Aayog launched India Energy Security Scenarios (IESS) 2047, an interactive energy scenario building tool that aims to explore a range of potential future energy scenarios for India, for diverse energy demand and supply sectors leading up to 2047. It explores India’s possible energy scenarios across energy supply sectors such as solar, wind, bio fuels, oil, gas, coal and nuclear, etc and emphasis their use. It is also a systematic system of analyzing the energy demand of sectors such as transport, industry, agriculture, cooking and lighting appliances.
  5. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) successfully placed communication satellite GSAT-6 in earth’s orbit through GSLV D-6 rocket. GSAT-6 will provide S-band communication services in the country. It is aimed at primarily benefiting the country’s strategic and planning users and other specific authorized users. The cuboids-shaped satellite with a mission life of nine years also includes a first-of-its-kind S-Band unfurl-able antenna with a diameter of six meter. This is the largest antenna ISRO has ever made for a satellite. It was also the 25th home-made communications satellite launched by ISRO using the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-GSLV.
  6. Former India captain Dilip Vengsarkar elected as the President of the Association of Indian Statisticians and Scorers of India (ACSSI). He was elected unopposed during the Annual General Meeting (AGM) of ACSSI. At present, Vengsarkar is the Vice President of the Mumbai Cricket Association (MCA). Also, Dara Pochkhanawalla and Ganesh Iyer were elected as the two vice presidents of the organization.
  7. Global wealth assessment company, Wealth-X released the report related to the list of Top 20 Wealthiest People fewer than 35. As per the report, Facebook co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg is the wealthiest individual under the age of 35, with a personal fortune of 41.6 billion US dollars. Zuckerberg is followed by Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz, who claimed the second place on the list with an estimated net worth of 9.3 billion US dollars and with Country Garden Holdings’s Huiyan Yang on the third spot with an estimated net worth of 5.9 billion US dollars.
  8. Dr. Kandakatla Manohar was appointed as the Director of Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS) of Hyderabad. His appointment was approved by the Telangana Government. He succeeded Dr. L. Narendranath. Manohar is a native of Penchikalapeta of Warangal district and is working as the Superintendent of the MGM Hospital in Warangal.
  9. Union Govt. has announced the list of 98 cities and towns selected under Smart Cities Mission. Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of allocated cities-13 in the Smart Cities Mission as announced by Muppavarapu Venkaiah Naidu, the Union Minister of Urban development. However, only 12 cities have been shortlisted from Uttar Pradesh against 13 cities allocated to the state and one city will be nominated later for which there is a tussle between Meerut and Raibareilly. Tamil Nadu has been allocated 12 cities, followed by 10 from Maharashtra and 7 from Madhya Pradesh. Centre has earmarked Rs. 48,000 Crore for development of 100 smart cities
  10. China launched its Yaogan-27 remote sensing satellite into space from Taiyuan launch site in Shanxi province, north China. The satellite will mainly be used for experiments, land surveys, crop yield estimates and disaster prevention. Yaogan-27 was carried into space by a Long March-4C rocket. China launched the first “Yaogan” series satellite, Yaogan-1, in 2006.

Sunday, 9 August 2015

Career-Banking Sector In India


If you’re good at Maths and English and want to make a career in Banking Sector, then this is the right time to make a move. Most government and private banks in India are currently recruiting or planning to do so in the near future. Banks have also been expanding their branch and ATM network in a big way due to which they need trained human resources on a large scale.
In the last few decades, the banking industry has experienced fundamental changes. The example of Hema Malini Venkatraman is an interesting case in point. After completing her graduation with gold medal in the 1980s from a very famous college of an average Indiantown, she was asked by the media if she wanted to become an IAS officer or try some other field. She remarked that she wanted to become a Probationary Officer (PO) in a bank. Not only her parents but even her school teachers as well as the media were stunned at her answer that instead of attempting to qualify for an IAS exam, such an intelligent girl wanted to become an officer in the bank. Such reactions were quite obvious at that time because civil services then had around one thousand vacancies a year whereas banks barely had 40-80 vacancies. If any bank ever advertised for over 100 vacancies, it used to be a huge sensation. But now the scenario has changed and a large number of vacancies are advised. Now is the time for those who want to opt for career in banking.
Growing Opportunities
The retired Assistant General Manager of Vijaya Bank, AP Singh says that the nature that the nature of expansion of the banking sector is such that new branches are being opened in the villages and thus well-trained personnel are the need of the hour. He further adds that suburban areas in almost all cities are also expanding with new colonies growing at a fast pace. No sooner does a new colony come in; a bank branch is needed instantly. Once a bank makes a debut, the rest follow suit. Another observation that he makes is about the changing nature of services offered by banks.
He says, earlier government and private sectors banks used to provide services pertaining to deposit and remittance of money, loans and debt. But, now banks are also selling insurance policies and offering services in the financial fields such as mutual funds & strategic investment plans. With this, the range of services has increased and so has opportunity for employment.
Recruitment Scenario
According to hansmukh Aditya, Secretary, Central Bank, this year’s recruitment would certainly not be less than that of the last year. Dr. Upendra Sah, a lecturer in the department of economics at the Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University, analyses the possible recruitment in the banking sector in a different way. According to him, every year, thousands of officers are retiring in almost all the old government banks. This number is among the highest in bigger institutions like the State Bank. Naturally these seats have to be filled soon to ensure the organization smooth functioning. Additionally, in rural as well as urban areas, private sectors banks like government banks, are also opening their new branches and want to expand their business aggressively. Though the number of employees and offices in the newly opened branches is less, yet, at least five to six people are recruited. Additionally, providing license to several new banks is in line this year. Public sector company IDFC and the non-banking finance company NBFC Bandhan are said to have received licenses to open banks. Bandhan has even announced the commencement of banks operations formally from next month. According to a non-official estimates, this year there is likely to be 60-80 thousands vacancies and recruitments in the banking sector.
Indian Banking System
Dr. Upendra Sah says that the Indian banking system is very strong and holds the complete Indian economy strongly. The strength of this system could be taken into account with the fact that a few years back when the world economy was under the threat of recession, Indian economy came out largely unscathed because of its strong banking system. After independence, the story of banking regulations began with the banking regulating acts of 1949. That time banking system was completely private and most of the rough edges were found in this system. Later in1969, 14 banks were nationalized. After 11 years, in 1980, 6 more banks were nationalized. Among these, New Bank of India was merged with Punjab National Bank. As of now, there are 19 nationalized banks in India whereas the number of State bank of India and its subsidiary banks is six. In private sector there are 18 banks whereas an announcement regarding license to two more banks was made.
The Process of Bank Recruitment
There is a common written test for the recruitment which is conducted by the Institute of Banking Personnel Selection-IBPS. This test is being conducted twice in a year for recruitment in 19 government banks. The State Bank of India with its constituent’s banks conducts its own test separately. Now after appearing in one test, they will be eligible to seek employment at several banks. For the Government banks, including the regional ones, IBPS holds a joint online examination followed by interview. Pre-examination training is also arranged for SC/ST candidates. For a job in a regional rural bank knowledge of local language is also required. In the private sector, there are no set selection criteria or process. They recruit according to their own process. Many private banks usually prefer campus selection.

Category of the Banks and Name Government Banks
State Bank and its co-coordinating units (State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Travancore)

PUBLIC SECTOR BANK
PRIVATE SECTOR BANK
Allahabad Bank
Catholic Syrian Bank
Andhra bank
City Union Bank
Bank of Maharashtra
Dhan Laxmi Bank
Bank of India
Federal Bank
Bank of Baroda
Jammu & Kashmir Bank
Canara Bank
Karnataka Bank
Central Bank of India
Karur Vaishya Bank
Corporation Bank
Lakshmi Vilas Bank
Dena Bank
Nainital Bank
Indian Bank
Ratnakar Bank
India Overseas Bank
South Indian Bank
Oriental Bank of Commerce
Tamil Nadu Mercentile Bank
Punjab National Bank
Axis Bank
Punjab & Sind Bank
Kotak Mahindra Bank
Syndicate Bank
HDFC Bank
UCO Bank
ICICI Bank
United Bank of India
Indusind Bank
Union Bank of India
Yes Bank
Vijaya Bank

IDBI Bank

Bhartiya Mahila Bank

Friday, 7 August 2015

History of Mobile Phone


This history focuses on communication devices which connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network. The transmission of speech by radio has a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony. The first mobile telephones were barely portable compared to today's compact hand-held devices. Along with the process of developing more portable technology, drastic changes have taken place in the networking of wireless communication and the prevalence of its use.
Predecessors
Before the devices that are now referred to as mobile phones existed, there were some precursors. In 1908 a Professor Albert Jahnke and the Oakland Transcontinental Aerial Telephone and Power Company claimed to have developed a wireless telephone. They were accused of fraud and the charge was then dropped, but they do not seem to have proceeded with production. Beginning in 1918 the German railroad system tested wireless telephony on military trains between Berlin and Zossen. In 1924, public trials started with telephone connection on trains between Berlin and Hamburg. In 1925, the company Zugtelephonie A. G. was founded to supply train telephony equipment and in 1926 telephone service in trains of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the German mail service on the route between Hamburg and Berlin was approved and offered to 1st class travelers.
Karl Arnold drawing of public use of mobile telephones
In 1907, the English caricaturist Lewis Baumer published a cartoon in Punch magazine entitled "Predictions for 1907" in which he showed a man and a woman in London's Hyde Park each separately engaged in gambling and dating on wireless telephony equipment. Then in 1926 the artist Karl Arnold created a visionary cartoon about the use of mobile phones in the street, in the picture "wireless telephony", published in the German satirical magazine Simplicissimus.
The portrayal of a utopia of mobile phone in literature dates back to the year 1931. It is found in Erich Kästner's children's book the 35th of May, or Conrad's Ride to the South Seas:
“A gentleman who rode along the sidewalk in front of them, suddenly stepped off the conveyor belt, pulled a phone from his coat pocket, spoke a number into it and shouted: "Gertrude, listen, I'll be an hour late for lunch because I want to go to the laboratory. Goodbye, sweetheart!" Then he put his pocket phone away again, stepped back on the conveyor belt, and started reading a book...              ”
—Erich Kästner
The Second World War made military use of radio telephone links. Hand-held radio transceivers have been available since the 1940s. Mobile telephones for automobiles became available from some telephone companies in the 1940s. Early devices were bulky and consumed high power and the network supported only a few simultaneous conversations. Modern cellular networks allow automatic and pervasive use of mobile phones for voice and data communications.
In the United States, engineers from Bell Labs began work on a system to allow mobile users to place and receive telephone calls from automobiles, leading to the inauguration of mobile service on 17 June 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri. Shortly after, AT&T offered Mobile Telephone Service. A wide range of mostly incompatible mobile telephone services offered limited coverage area and only a few available channels in urban areas. The introduction of cellular technology, which allowed re-use of frequencies many times in small adjacent areas covered by relatively low powered transmitters, made widespread adoption of mobile telephones economically feasible.
One of the earliest fictional descriptions of a mobile phone can be found in the 1948 science fiction novel Space Cadet by Robert Heinlein. The protagonist, who has just traveled to Colorado from his home in Des Moines, receives a call from his father on a pocket telephone. Before going to space he decides to ship the telephone home “since it was limited by its short range to the neighborhood of an earth-side [i.e. terrestrial] relay office.” Ten years later, an essay by Arthur C. Clarke envisioned a "personal transceiver, so small and compact that every man carries one." He wrote: "the time will come when we will be able to call a person anywhere on Earth merely by dialing a number." Such a device would also, in Clarke's vision, include means for global positioning so that "no one need ever again be lost." Later, in Profiles of the Future, he predicted the advent of such a device taking place in the mid-1980s. US TV series Get Smart (1965-1970) depicted spy gadgets with mobile telephones concealed in random objects, including shoes.
In the USSR, Leonid Kupriyanovich, an engineer from Moscow, in 1957-1961 developed and presented a number of experimental models of handheld mobile phones. The weight of one model, presented in 1961, was only 70 g and could fit on a palm. However in the USSR the decision at first to develop the system of the automobile "Altai" phone was made.
In 1965, Bulgarian company "Radioelektronika" presented on the Inforga-65 international exhibition in Moscow the mobile automatic phone combined with a base station. Solutions of this phone were based on a system developed by Leonid Kupriyanovich. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to 15 customers.
The advances in mobile telephony can be traced in successive generations from the early "0G" services like MTS and its successor Improved Mobile Telephone Service, to first generation (1G) analog cellular network, second generation (2G) digital cellular networks, third generation (3G) broadband data services to the current state of the art, fourth generation (4G) native-IP networks.
Early services
MTS
In 1949 AT&T commercialized Mobile Telephone Service. From its start in St. Louis in 1946, AT&T then introduced Mobile Telephone Service to one hundred towns and highway corridors by 1948. Mobile Telephone Service was a rarity with only 5,000 customers placing about 30 000 calls each week. Calls were set up manually by an operator and the user had to depress a button on the handset to talk and release the button to listen. The call subscriber equipment weighed about 36 kg.
Subscriber growth and revenue generation were hampered by the constraints of the technology. Because only three radio channels were available, only three customers in any given city could make mobile telephone calls at one time. Mobile Telephone Service was expensive, costing 15 USD per month, plus 0.30 to 0.40 USD per local call, equivalent to about 176 USD per month and 3.50 to 4.75 per call in 2012 USD.
In the UK there was also a vehicle based system called "Post Office Radiophone Service" it was launched around the city of Manchester in 1959, and although it required callers to speak to an operator, it was possible to be put through to any subscriber in Great Britain. The service was extended to London in 1965 and other major cities in 1972.
IMTS
AT&T introduced the first major improvement to mobile telephony in 1965, giving the improved service the obvious name of Improved Mobile Telephone Service. IMTS used additional radio channels, allowing more simultaneous calls in a given geographic area, introduced customer dialing, eliminating manual call setup by an operator, and reduced the size and weight of the subscriber equipment.
Despite the capacity improvement offered by IMTS, demand outstripped capacity. In agreement with state regulatory agencies, AT&T limited the service to just 40,000 customers system wide. In New York City, for example, 2,000 customers shared just 12 radio channels and typically had to wait 30 minutes to place a call.
Radio Common Carrier
A mobile radio telephone
Radio Common Carrier or RCC was a service introduced in the 1960s by independent telephone companies to compete against AT&T's IMTS. RCC systems used paired UHF 454/459 MHz and VHF 152/158 MHz frequencies near those used by IMTS. RCC based services were provided until the 1980s when cellular AMPS systems made RCC equipment obsolete.
Some RCC systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent carriers to use their facilities, but equipment used by RCCs did not allow the equivalent of modern "roaming" because technical standards were not uniform. For example, the phone of an Omaha, Nebraska–based RCC service would not be likely to work in Phoenix, Arizona. Roaming was not encouraged, in part, because there was no centralized industry billing database for RCCs. Signaling formats were not standardized. For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile of an incoming call. Other systems used DTMF. Some used Se-code 2805, which transmitted an interrupted 2805 Hz tone (similar to IMTS signaling) to alert mobiles of an offered call. Some radio equipment used with RCC systems was half-duplex, push-to-talk LOMO equipment such as Motorola hand-held or RCA 700-series conventional two-way radios. Other vehicular equipment had telephone handsets and rotary dials or pushbutton pads, and operated full duplex like a conventional wired telephone. A few users had full-duplex briefcase telephones (radically advanced for their day)
At the end of RCC's existence, industry associations were working on a technical standard that would have allowed roaming, and some mobile users had multiple decoders to enable operation with more than one of the common signaling formats (600/1500, 2805, and Reach). Manual operation was often a fallback for RCC roamers.
Other services
In 1969 Penn Central Railroad equipped commuter trains along the 360 km New York-Washington route with special pay phones that allowed passengers to place telephone calls while the train was moving. The system re-used six frequencies in the 450 MHz band in nine sites.
European mobile radio networks
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Insourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2012)
In Europe, several mutually incompatible mobile radio services were developed. West Germany had a network called A-Netz launched in 1952 as the country's first public commercial mobile phone network. In 1972 this was displaced by B-Netz which connected calls automatically. In 1966 Norway had a system called OLT which was manually controlled.

Cellular concepts
A multi-directional, cellular network antenna array ("cell tower")
In December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonal cells for mobile phones in vehicles. At this stage, the technology to implement these ideas did not exist, nor had the frequencies been allocated. Two decades would pass before Richard H. Frenkiel, Joel S. Engel and Philip T. Porter of Bell Labs expanded the early proposals into a much more detailed system plan. It was Porter who first proposed that the cell towers use the now-familiar directional antennas to reduce interference and increase channel reuse Porter also invented the dial-then-send method used by all cell phones to reduce wasted channel time.
In all these early examples, a mobile phone had to stay within the coverage area serviced by one base station throughout the phone call, i.e. there was no continuity of service as the phones moved through several cell areas. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the late 1960s, in papers by Frenkiel and Porter. In 1970 Amos E. Joel, Jr., a Bell Labs engineer invented a "three-sided trunk circuit" to aid in the "call handoff" process from one cell to another. His patent contained an early description of the Bell Labs cellular concept, but as switching systems became faster, such a circuit became unnecessary and was never implemented in a system.
A cellular telephone switching plan was described by Fluhr and Nussbaum in 1973, and a cellular telephone data signaling system was described in 1977 by Hachenburg et al.
Emergence of automated services
The first fully automated mobile phone system for vehicles was launched in Sweden in 1956. Named MTA (Mobil telephony system A), it allowed calls to be made and received in the car using a rotary dial. The car phone could also be paged. Calls from the car were direct dial, whereas incoming calls required an operator to locate the nearest base station to the car. It was developed by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket network operator. Ericsson provided the switchboard while Svenska Radio Aktiebolaget (SRA) and Marconi provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones consisted of vacuum tubes and relays, and weighed 40 kg. In 1962, an upgraded version called Mobile System B (MTB) was introduced. This was a push-button telephone, and used transistors and DTMF signaling to improve its operational reliability. In 1971 the MTD version was launched, opening for several different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success. The network remained open until 1983 and still had 600 customers when it closed.
In 1958 development began on a similar system for motorists in the USSR. The "Altay" national civil mobile phone service was based on Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The main developers of the Altay system were the Voronezh Science Research Institute of Communications (VNIIS) and the State Specialized Project Institute (GSPI). In 1963 the service started in Moscow, and by 1970 was deployed in 30 cities across the USSR. Versions of the Altay system are still in use today as a trucking system in some parts of Russia.
In 1959 a private telephone company located in Brewster, Kansas, USA, the S&T Telephone Company, (still in business today) with the use of Motorola Radio Telephone equipment and a private tower facility, offered to the public mobile telephone services in that local area of NW Kansas. This system was a direct dial up service through their local switchboard, and was installed in many private vehicles including grain combines, trucks, and automobiles. For some as yet unknown reason, the system, after being placed online and operated for a very brief time period, was shut down. The management of the company was immediately changed, and the fully operable system and related equipment was immediately dismantled in early 1960, not to be seen again.
In 1966, Bulgaria presented the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0,5 combined with a base station RATZ-10 (RATC-10) on Interorgtechnika-66 international exhibition. One base station, connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to six customers ("Radio" magazine, 2, 1967; "Novosti dnya" newsreel, 37, 1966).
One of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971. Posthumously, ARP is sometimes viewed as a zero generation (0G) cellular network, being slightly above previous proprietary and limited coverage networks.
Handheld mobile phone
Martin Cooper photographed in 2007 with his 1973 handheld mobile phone prototype
Prior to 1973, mobile telephony was limited to phones installed in cars and other vehicles. Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone. On 3 April 1973 when Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. The prototype handheld phone used by Dr. Cooper weighed 1.1 kg and measured 23 cm long, 13 cm deep and 4.45 cm wide. The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge.
John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products and Cooper's boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.
Analog cellular networks – 1G
The first automatic analog cellular systems deployed were NTT's system first used in Tokyo in 1979, later spreading to the whole of Japan, and NMT in the Nordic countries in 1981.
The first analog cellular system widely deployed in North America was the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). It was commercially introduced in the Americas in October 1983, Israel in 1986, and Australia in 1987. AMPS were a pioneering technology that helped drive mass market usage of cellular technology, but it had several serious issues by modern standards. It was unencrypted and easily vulnerable to eavesdropping via a scanner; it was susceptible to cell phone "cloning;" and it used a Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) scheme and required significant amounts of wireless spectrum to support.
On 6 March 1983, the DynaTAC mobile phone launched on the first US 1G network by Ameritech. It cost $100m to develop, and took over a decade to reach the market. The phone had a talk time of just half an hour and took ten hours to charge. Consumer demand was strong despite the battery life, weight, and low talk time, and waiting lists were in the thousands.
Many of the iconic early commercial cell phones such as the Motorola DynaTAC Analog AMPS were eventually superseded by Digital AMPS (D-AMPS) in 1990, and AMPS service was shut down by most North American carriers by 2008.
Digital cellular networks – 2G
Two 1991 GSM mobile phones with several AC adapters
In the 1990s, the 'second generation' mobile phone systems emerged. Two systems competed for supremacy in the global market: the European developed GSM standard and the U.S. developed CDMA standard. These differed from the previous generation by using digital instead of analog transmission, and also fast out-of-band phone-to-network signaling. The rise in mobile phone usage as a result of 2G was explosive and this era also saw the advent of prepaid mobile phones.
In 1991 the first GSM network (Radiolinja) launched in Finland. In general the frequencies used by 2G systems in Europe were higher than those in America, though with some overlap. For example, the 900 MHz frequency range was used for both 1G and 2G systems in Europe, so the 1G systems were rapidly closed down to make space for the 2G systems. In America the IS-54 standard was deployed in the same band as AMPS and displaced some of the existing analog channels.
In 1993, IBM Simon was introduced. This was possibly the world's first smartphone. It was a mobile phone, pager, fax machine, and PDA all rolled into one. It included a calendar, address book, clock, calculator, notepad, email, and a touchscreen with a QWERTY keyboard. The IBM Simon had a stylus you used to tap the touch screen with. It featured predictive typing that would guess the next characters as you tapped. It had applications, or at least a way to deliver more features by plugging a PCMCIA 1.8 MB memory card into the phone. Coinciding with the introduction of 2G systems was a trend away from the larger "brick" phones toward tiny 100 – 200 gram hand-held devices. This change was possible not only through technological improvements such as more advanced batteries and more energy-efficient electronics, but also because of the higher density of cell sites to accommodate increasing usage. The latter meant that the average distance transmission from phone to the base station shortened, leading to increased battery life while on the move.
Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems used in Japan around 1997–2003
The second generation introduced a new variant of communication called SMS or text messaging. It was initially available only on GSM networks but spread eventually on all digital networks. The first machine-generated SMS message was sent in the UK on 3 December 1992 followed in 1993 by the first person-to-person SMS sent in Finland. The advent of prepaid services in the late 1990s soon made SMS the communication method of choice among the young, a trend which spread across all ages.
2G also introduced the ability to access media content on mobile phones. In 1998 the first downloadable content sold to mobile phones was the ring tone, launched by Finland's Radiolinja (now Elisa). Advertising on the mobile phone first appeared in Finland when a free daily SMS news headline service was launched in 2000, sponsored by advertising.
Mobile payments were trialed in 1998 in Finland and Sweden where a mobile phone was used to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine and car parking. Commercial launches followed in 1999 in Norway. The first commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart.
The first full internet service on mobile phones was introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.
Mobile broadband data - 3G
As the use of 2G phones became more widespread and people began to utilize mobile phones in their daily lives, it became clear that demand for data (such as access to browse the internet) was growing. Further, experience from fixed broadband services showed there would also be an ever increasing demand for greater data speeds. The 2G technology was nowhere near up to the job, so the industry began to work on the next generation of technology known as 3G. The main technological difference that distinguishes 3G technology from 2G technology is the use of packet switching rather than circuit switching for data transmission. In addition, the standardization process focused on requirements more than technology (2 Mbit/s maximum data rate indoors, 384 kbit/s outdoors, for example).
Inevitably this led to many competing standards with different contenders pushing their own technologies, and the vision of a single unified worldwide standard looked far from reality. The standard 2G CDMA networks became 3G compliant with the adoption of Revision A to EV-DO, which made several additions to the protocol while retaining backwards compatibility:
Introduction of several new forward link data rates that increase the maximum burst rate from 2.45 Mbit/s to 3.1 Mbit/s
Protocols that would decrease connection establishment time
Ability for more than one mobile to share the same time slot
Introduction of QoS flags
All these were put in place to allow for low latency, low bit rate communications such as VoIP.
The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in the Tokyo region in May 2001. NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3G network on 1 October 2001, using the WCDMA technology. In 2002 the first 3G networks on the rival CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology were launched by SK Telecom and KTF in South Korea, and Monet in the USA. Monet has since gone bankrupt. By the end of 2002, the second WCDMA network was launched in Japan by Vodafone KK (now Softbank). European launches of 3G were in Italy and the UK by the Three/Hutchison group, on WCDMA. 2003 saw a further 8 commercial launches of 3G, six more on WCDMA and two more on the EV-DO standard.
During the development of 3G systems, 2.5G systems such as CDMA2000 1x and GPRS were developed as extensions to existing 2G networks. These provide some of the features of 3G without fulfilling the promised high data rates or full range of multimedia services. CDMA2000-1X delivers theoretical maximum data speeds of up to 307 kbit/s. Just beyond these is the EDGE system which in theory covers the requirements for 3G system, but is so narrowly above these that any practical system would be sure to fall short.
The high connection speeds of 3G technology enabled a transformation in the industry: for the first time, media streaming of radio (and even television) content to 3G handsets became possible, with companies such as Real Networks and Disney among the early pioneers in this type of offering.
In the mid-2000s (decade), an evolution of 3G technology began to be implemented, namely High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Mbit/s.
By the end of 2007, there were 295 million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which reflected 9% of the total worldwide subscriber base. About two thirds of these were on the WCDMA standard and one third on the EV-DO standard. The 3G telecoms services generated over 120 Billion dollars of revenues during 2007 and at many markets the majority of new phones activated were 3G phones. In Japan and South Korea the market no longer supplies phones of the second generation.
Although mobile phones had long had the ability to access data networks such as the Internet, it was not until the widespread availability of good quality 3G coverage in the mid-2000s (decade) that specialized devices appeared to access the mobile internet. The first such devices, known as "dongles", plugged directly into a computer through the USB port. Another new class of device appeared subsequently, the so-called "compact wireless router" such as the Novatel MiFi, which makes 3G internet connectivity available to multiple computers simultaneously over Wi-Fi, rather than just to a single computer via a USB plug-in.
Such devices became especially popular for use with laptop computers due to the added portability they bestow. Consequently, some computer manufacturers started to embed the mobile data function directly into the laptop so a dongle or MiFi wasn't needed. Instead, the SIM card could be inserted directly into the device itself to access the mobile data services. Such 3G-capable laptops became commonly known as "netbooks". Other types of data-aware devices followed in the netbook's footsteps. By the beginning of 2010, E-readers, such as the Amazon Kindle and the Nook from Barnes & Noble, had already become available with embedded wireless internet, and Apple Computer had announced plans for embedded wireless internet on its iPad tablet devices beginning that fall.
Native IP networks – 4G
By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications like streaming media. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized 4th-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to 10-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard (offered in the U.S. by Sprint) and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was in its elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP network. Thus, 4G ushered in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of streaming audio media, utilizing packet switching over internet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.
Thefts
According to the Federal Communications Commission, one out of three robberies involved the theft of a cellular phone. Police data in San Francisco showed that one-half of all robberies in 2012 were thefts of cellular phones. An online petition on Change.org called Secure our Smartphones urged smartphone manufacturers to install kill switches in their devices to make them unusable in case of theft. The petition is part of a joint effort by New York Attorney General Eric Schneider man and San Francisco District Attorney George Gascon and was directed to the CEOs of the major smartphone manufacturers and telecommunication carriers. On Monday, 10 June 2013, Apple announced it would install a kill switch on its next iPhone operating system, due to debut in October 2013.
Satellite mobile
Earth-orbiting satellites can cover remote areas out of reach of wired networks or where construction of a cellular network is uneconomic. The Inmarsat satellite telephone system, originally developed in 1979 for safety of life at sea, is now also useful for areas out of reach of landline, conventional cellular or marine VHF radio stations. In 1998 the Iridium satellite system was set up, and although the initial operating company went bankrupt due to high initial expenses, the service is available today

Thursday, 30 July 2015

Yakub Abdul Razak Memon-Life & Death


Yakub Abdul Razak Memon (30 July 1962 – 30 July 2015) was an Indian terrorist and chartered accountant, who was convicted over his involvement in the 1993 Bombay bombings by Special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities court on 27 July 2007. Yakub Memon was the brother of one of the prime suspects in the bombings, Tiger Memon. His appeals and petitions for clemency were all rejected and he was executed by hanging on 30 July 2015 in Nagpur jail.
Yakub Memon was born on 30 July 1962 in Mumbai and grew up in the Byculla neighborhood, where he attended Antonio D'Souza High School. He completed a Masters in Commerce at the Burhani College of Commerce and Arts. In 1986, Memon enrolled in the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and completed study as a chartered accountant in 1990.
In 1991, Memon founded the chartered accountancy firm 'Mehta & Memon Associates' with his childhood friend Chetan Mehta. The following year, they parted ways, and he founded another accountancy firm 'AR & Sons'. Named after his father, it was so successful that Memon won a "Best Chartered Accountant of the Year" award from the Memon community of Mumbai. He also formed the export company 'Tejrath International' to export meat products to the Persian Gulf region and Middle East.
But later he was known for-1993 Bombay bombings
According to Indian authorities, Memon financially assisted his brother Tiger Memon and Dawood Ibrahim in planning and executing the bombings. Memon allegedly handled Tiger's funds, funded the training of 15 youths who were sent to Pakistan to learn the art of handling arms and ammunition, purchased the vehicles used in the bombings, and stockpiled weapons.
Arrest
The Indian Central Bureau of Investigation claims that Memon was arrested at New Delhi railway station on 5 August 1994. However, Memon claims that he surrendered to police in Nepal on the 28 July 1994. Memon was arrested with a briefcase which contained a recording of a conversation he had had in Karachi.
Trial
Justice P. D. Kode, in a Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) court, found Memon guilty of the following offences on 27 July 2007
Crime
Sentence
Criminal conspiracy
Death
Aiding and abetting and facilitating in a terrorist act
Life imprisonment
Illegal possession and transportation of arms and ammunition
Rigorous imprisonment for 14 years
Possessing explosives with intent to endanger lives
Rigorous imprisonment for 10 years

Subsequent appeals and petitions
Memon filed an appeal before the Supreme Court of India under Section 19 of the TADA Act and State of Maharashtra filed a reference before the court for the confirmation of Memon's death sentence. On 21 March 2013, the Supreme Court confirmed Memon's conviction and death sentence for conspiracy through financing the attacks. The Court held that Memon's role was limited not only to the extent of correspondence between the masterminds and all other accused, but he was also entrusted with task of handling the explosive bags and for their safe keeping, which is stated in the confessional statements of various co-accused persons. It also held that Memon was actively involved in hawala transactions for the purpose of facilitating the blasts. The judges called him the "mastermind" and "driving force" behind the bombings. Memon has consistently claimed innocence.
Memon then filed a Review Petition seeking review of Supreme Court’s judgment confirming his death sentence. On 30 July 2013, Supreme Court bench headed by Chief Justice P Sathasivam and Justice BS Chauhan rejected Memon's application for oral hearing and dismissed his review petition by circulation. Memon then filed a Writ Petition before the Supreme Court as the issue of oral hearing of review petitions against death sentences was being heard by the Supreme Court.
Indian President Pranab Mukherjee rejected Memon's petition for clemency on 11 April 2014.
On 1 June 2014, Justices J. Khehar and C. Nagappan imposed a stay of execution while a plea from Memon, that review of death penalties should be heard in an open court rather than in chambers, was heard by a constitution bench of the Supreme Court which was then extended in December 2014. On 24 March 2015, open court hearing began on Memon's review petition. Senior Counsel Jaspal Singh represented Memon. On 9 April 2015, Supreme Court dismissed Memon’s review petition.
Memon then filed a curative petition to the Supreme Court, which was rejected on 21 July 2015. Meanwhile, Maharashtra Government issued a death warrant setting 30 July 2015 as the date for Memon's execution. Memon then filed a mercy petition with the Governor of Maharashtra and then filed a Writ before the Supreme Court of India for a stay on his execution till the mercy petition is decided. He claimed that the death warrant was illegal, as it had been issued before he had exhausted all his legal avenues of appeal. The capital punishment given to Yakub Memon has been criticized by a few eminent personalities, including Research and Analysis Wing officer B. Raman, former Supreme Court judge Justice H. S. Bedi, Former Supreme Court judge Markandey Katju, Hussain Zaidi, Ram Jethmalani, Asaduddin Owaisi, R. Jagannathan and a few Muslim bodies, who asked for implementation of the Srikrishna Commission report. On 26 July 2015, a petition was handed over by some eminent personalities and political leaders to President Mukherjee to reconsider Memon's mercy plea.
On 28 July 2015, Memon filed a fresh writ petition before the Supreme Court challenging the order passed in the curative petition contending that the required quorum was not present based on the interpretation of the Supreme Court Rules. After the hearing, the two judges disagreed on the issue and passed an order requesting the Chief Justice of India (CJI) to urgently constitute a larger bench. On July 29, the Supreme Court rejected his petition. Memon also submitted a petition for clemency to Maharashtra Governor C. Vidyasagar Rao and a fresh petition to President Mukherjee, both of which were rejected. As a final resort Memon's lawyers filed a plea for 14-day stay of execution with Supreme Court Chief Justice citing that there needs to be 14 day period between a mercy plea rejected by president and the execution. A three-judge bench convened at 2:30 IST to hear the arguments. After hearing the arguments the bench upheld the execution, rejecting Memon's lawyers arguments.
Imprisonment
Memon was originally held at Yerwada Central Jail, and was transferred to Nagpur Central Jail in August 2007. While in prison, he has studied at Indira Gandhi National Open University and earned two master's degrees. The first, in 2013, in English literature and the second degree, in 2014, in political science.
Execution
Memon was executed by hanging in Nagpur Central Jail at around 6:30 AM IST on 30 July 2015. He had been woken at 4:00 AM, permitted to take a warm bath and was provided with a fresh set of clothing. He was allowed to read the Quran and offer Namaz, given a last meal of his choice, and underwent a final medical examination before the execution. A police constable who had previously executed Ajmal Kasab served as the hangman.

Assam Rifles Subedar Recruitment 2015 :-




·         Name of Department: - Office of the Directorate General Rifles
·         Location :- Shillong, Assam
·         Name of Post: - Naib Subedar, Rifleman
·         Number of Post: - 574 Posts


S. No
Name of the Post
Total Vacancies
1.
Clerk
88 Posts
2.
Personal Assistant
27 Posts
3.
Religious Teacher JCO
09 Posts
4.
Electrical Fitter Signal
19 Posts
5.
Lineman Field
25 Posts
6.
Radio Mechanic
18 Posts
7.
Metal Smith
08 Posts
8.
Upholster
05 Posts
9.
Barrack and Road
08 Posts
10.
Blacksmith
09 Posts
11.
Plumber
07 Posts
12.
Lab Assistant
75 Posts
13.
Pharmacist
34 Posts
14.
X-Ray Assistant
46 Posts
15.
Staff Nurse
21 Posts
16.
Veterinary Field Assistant
02 Posts
17.
Female Sweeper
24 Posts
18.
Hindi Translator Gd-2
25 Posts
19.
Crap
35 Posts
20.
Cook
89 Posts


Eligibility Criteria for Assam Rifles Subedar Recruitment 2015:-

1. Education Details: - Candidate should have passed Senior Secondary (10+2) Exam from recognized board for S.no 1&2. For S.no 3 post the applicants should have completed Graduate with Madhyaman Sanskrit of Bhusan in Hindi. For S.no 4 post the applicants should hold 10th Class with Science, Math and English. Post wise description is available in official notification.

2. Age Limit: - Applicants should be minimum 18 years old and maximum age should be between 23 to 28 year old. Age relaxation is applicable as per govt. rules and regulations.

3. Pay Band: - Pay Band and other allowances will be admissible to Assam Rifle personnel.

4. Application Fee: - Application fee for GEN and OBC candidate Assam Rifles Recruitment is RS 50/- payable through SBI Challan through Power Jyoti Account No, 35015974955 at SBI, Laitkor Branch, Shillong, and Code No – 13883. SBI Bank Challan are provided in the official notification. No fee for reserved candidate.

5. Selection Process: - Candidate will be short listed by the Written Test and Physical Efficiency Test (PET).

How to Apply for Assam Rifles Subedar Recruitment 2015:-

Applicants who are eligible and interested, they need to send hard copy of the application along with all required documents and SBI Challan. Applications are acceptable in offline mode only. Applicants should fill up applications carefully before fill up must read out instruction. Application forms are available at the official site at www.assamrifles.gov.in. Address to send applications are

Important Date for registration process:-
Last date to send application: - 31.08.15.